Origin of the flute
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument. The
history of the recorder
recorder or recorder dates back almost to the origins of mankind. The first flute-like instruments were created in prehistoric times using everyday materials such as wood, bones, ceramics, among others.
It has been present in many cultures and ethnic groups throughout history. For example, the bamboo flutes made by the indigenous people of the American continent had five or seven holes to produce tonal changes.
However, the origin of the recorder, as we know it today, begins in the Middle Ages, when the first versions were manufactured with a dividing bevel on the mouthpiece, which is the peculiar feature that separates the recorder from other similar instruments.
They were very popular during the Renaissance, as an accompaniment to voices and together with melodic instruments such as the lute and the transverse flute, among others. It played an important role in baroque orchestral music, in pieces by the most renowned composers of the time, such as Bach and Vivaldi.
In later centuries the recorder fell into disuse and was replaced by more complex instruments such as the clarinet. The revival of enthusiasm for the recorder began in the late 19th century, although it would be decades before it became the popular instrument we know and love today.
Parts of the recorder
The most basic version consists of these fundamental parts:
- Head: upper part of the flute where the embouchure is located.
- Embouchure: Orifice through which the air column is blown so that the air column can pass through the body and the sound can be produced.
- Body: Longest extension where the orifices or holes are located. This part is joined to the head by a joint, although there are many flutes that are in one piece.
- Holes: The recorder has eight holes, seven in the front and one in the back.
However, in modern times it has undergone multiple changes and therefore these other parts of the flute appear:
- Keys: They are used to facilitate or increase the extension of the tones and only professional flutes (with some exceptions) have them incorporated.
- Double holes: They can be included in the flutes for all levels and are used to facilitate the execution of the sustained sounds and, therefore, to perform the chromatic scale.
Types of recorder
The types of recorder are mainly classified according to the key:
- Piccolo: The highest pitched of all recorders. It produces sounds within the range of C6 to D8.
- Sopranino: Its tessitura ranges from F5 to G7.
- Soprano: The range of the soprano flute is from F5 to D7. The soprano recorder is the most popular and the one generally used to teach music to children.
- Alto or contra alto: The tessitura of the alto recorder is between F4 and G6.
- Tenor: His tessitura ranges from C4 to D6.
- Bass: It is a large flute, one of the largest in existence. Its tessitura ranges from F3 to G5.
- Great Bass: It is the largest of all the flutes and one of the least used because of its price. Its range of sounds goes from C3 to D5.
When we talk about recorder positions, we refer to the way the fingers press the holes of the recorder to produce the different tones. In this sense, it is important to distinguish between two types of flute fingering:
- Baroque fingering: It is that fingering that seeks a more ergonomic position and therefore has the holes that correspond to the ring and little fingers closer to the fingers.
- German fingering: It is less ergonomic, with more linear holes and less inclination.
It is also important to note that most flutes consist of two pieces and some of three. This allows the interpreter to adjust the inclination of the holes to his or her liking. There is another way to distinguish between the two types of fingering: by the size of one of their holes. While in the German it is smaller, in the Baroque it is larger.
Musical scale of the flute
Musical scales are a fundamental aspect because it is through them that the interpreter manages to give musicality to the sounds emitted by the instrument, whether violins, pianos, trombones or flutes.
There are seven major natural scales: do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si; while there are seven minor natural scales and each one has its representative in sharp.
This is the reference guide for all major scales:
- D major: D – E – F# – G – A – B – C# – D.
- E major: E – F# – G# – G# – A – B – C# – D# – E.
- F major: F – G – G – A – Bb – C – D – E – F.
- G major: G – A – B – B – C – D – E – E – F# – G.
- A major: A – B – C# – D – E – F – F# – G# – A.
- B major: B – C# – D# – E – F# – G# – A# – B.
The best recorder brands
- Yamaha: One of the great companies that has developed all kinds of musical instruments. The recorder is one of its strong points as it has one of the best valued in the market.
- Thomann: This German house, in its dedication to offer the most versatile proposals and with the best quality and price ratio, has designed some types of flutes that are impressive.
- Adler: The now defunct Adler company built many flutes of which many still survive and can be found in the stock of the best music stores.
- Gewa: It stands out for its instruments for beginners and for a good balance between tradition and technology.
- Meinel: Another house whose focus is the entry-level instrument market. In its effort to satisfy users, it has designed one of the highest rated soprano recorders in the music world.
- Moeck: On many occasions it has offered proposals that are impressive and a sample of this is the Moeck 1020 Plus that has some of the best features you can find.
- Mollenhauer: The 2466 series tenor recorder is a reference of the quality that this German company offers within its proposals and should be one of the aspirations for all levels of learning.
The best soprano recorders
The soprano recorder is characterized by producing stable, high-pitched sounds that allow the player to hit the note accurately and within the range of the instrument. It is the most popular type of recorder and also the most used for teaching music lessons to children.
Moeck 1020 Flauto 1 Plus
Excellent price-quality ratio, stable sound, a beautiful blend of tradition and technology.
Sustain something weak.
- Materials: Wood and ABS plastic.
- Tuning: C “C
- Sound: Bright, with little sustain but balanced.
- Weight: 200 gr.
Moeck is a legendary company in the wind instrument market. The company demonstrates its full potential and expertise in each of the recorders it develops.
The Moeck 1020 Plus is an example of the quality that this family offers for those who want to get started in the world of music, because it has everything to be one of the best proposals for beginners.
This soprano recorder for beginners is made of two materials that are very common nowadays, but not all instruments combine well with each other. We are referring to ABS plastic and wood. Traditionally, flutes are made of wood, but due to the high price involved, this material has been replaced by plastic. However, the Moeck family has managed to mix both elements, obtaining an excellent result.
ABS plastic is highly resistant to fracture and expansion, which means that it withstands not only shocks, but also heat. In addition, it has excellent acoustic properties, so the final sound is not significantly affected by the material.
Now, this flute also has maple wood, which is one of the cheapest on the market, but that does not diminish the quality of the instrument. In fact, it has a bending strength of 1100 kg per square centimeter, which means that you will have an almost eternal instrument that will only be at risk if you throw it into a fire or subject it to a hydraulic press.
The Moeck 1020 Flauto 1 Plus is a very beautiful flute thanks to its combination of materials that give it a first-class aesthetic beauty. The mouthpiece is made of ABS plastic that has been given a mahogany color, while the rest of the body is natural tone maple and that shade of color looks wonderful.
As a soprano flute , it covers the notes from F5 to D7. Elements that have not been incorporated are the double holes and this will require the flutist to be more dexterous, because hitting the sustained sounds under these conditions requires good breathing and musical ear.
The sound of this recorder receives an 8/10 for us. Why? First of all, the treble sounds are really good and hit the notes, good news for students. The same is true for displacements: the sound is maintained and when you play a scale the notes are all audible.
However, the sustain is weak and to have a good reverb, the performer must be demanding, otherwise he/she will not have good results. However, the volume saves the day because it is powerful and with an appealing warm sound. In our opinion, the type of compositions that suit him best are the classical ones, but Irish music also suits him very well.
This is a flute that combines the quality of tradition with the innovation of modern technology to offer the best of both worlds to all beginning players who want an instrument with the best value for money.
Mid-level musicians will also be happy with this proposal if they wish to purchase a basic recorder of good quality at a low price. Find the best price at Thomann.
Excellent sound and the best quality/price ratio.
- Materials: ABS plastic.
- Tuning: C“C”.
- Sound: Excellent for its price, with good sustain.
- Weight: 113 gr.
Yamaha has in its catalog the most sought after and best valued recorders in the market, and this proposal is an icon of the Japanese company. It has record sales and when a student or teacher talks about flutes, the YRS-23 is a must-have reference. Read on to find out why it is the most desired and recommended recorder.
The Yamaha YRS-23 is made of high quality ABS plastic and at 113 grams, it is considered a heavy flute. This indicates that the company has opted for high density ABS, with an excellent resistance that makes it ideal for students who are not only learning music, but also to take care of the instrument.
Inside, this Yamaha recorder has an arched duct for the air to move so that the apprentice can have more control over breathing. The fingering is German and this is due to its target audience: it is an instrument for beginners and this kind of positions on the flute facilitate the fingering of the holes.
Now you may be wondering: which fingering is the most advisable? Well, according to the recorder experts at Moeck, the German fingering is recommended for beginners, but if the student has concert flute aspirations, he should look for a recorder with Baroque fingering.
We can define the sound of the Yamaha YRS-23 recorder as a pleasant surprise because it has a clear tone for a recorder in this price range. When the musical scale is played on the flute, each of its notes can be differentiated and have a good volume.
The sustain is rich, with good nuances and the harmonics are really good for playing Irish music, although we don’t like it much for classical or baroque music. But if you develop a professional level you will find no limits, because its response is wonderful.
Overall, this is perhaps the best value for money flute on the market. It is wonderful, with an impressive sonority for this price range. We recommend it for children, young people and adults who wish to get started in the world of music with an inexpensive but not disappointing instrument, as it has a pleasant and powerful sound.
If you are an intermediate musician, you probably already have one among your possessions. But if you don’t have one, it’s time to get one to be your workhorse for the lowest price you can imagine. Find the best Thomann price on this link.
Gewa Natura Recorder
It is made of wood
- Materials: Maple wood.
- Tuning: C “C”.
- Sound: Good, balanced.
- Weight: 198.4 gr.
Since 1925, Gewa has been manufacturing wind instruments of the highest quality and the Natura Recorder soprano recorder is a clear example of this because it has the essence of the Gewa tradition embodied in each of its parts.
The recorder types of this manufacturer stand out for their good characteristics and the use of tradition together with technology. Find out why we think this flute is so excellent in this review.
The Gewa Natura Recorder is made entirely of German maple wood. It has a compressive strength of 450 kg per square centimeter, which guarantees a lifetime durability. In addition, it is stable to any range of vibration or sound frequency.
Heat plays an important factor in the resistance of this flute, as it is made of wood from Germany, where average temperatures are quite low. As a result, the parenchymatic tissue of the trees is compressed and acquires greater resistance. However, when the temperature changes, the wood molecules expand, thus reducing its resistance capacity.
This is something to keep in mind. When instruments built with these woods are taken to areas with higher temperatures, the performance will never be the same. In short, the Gewa Natura Recorder will be more elastic in Spain and therefore have better acoustic properties, but to the detriment of its strength. In addition, if it is filled with saliva, it will be more fragile, although not to the point that it will fracture easily.
We like the design of this flute because we love the traditional and we find a wood finish with a natural color. It is simply fabulous. It consists of two parts, which is the traditional shape, but the mouthpiece perforation is curved so that the air column can be better controlled.
The fingering is German style so the recorder positions are easier for beginners. But this does not detract from the quality, only that there is a certain preference in some professional circles for baroque fingering.
Double holes have not been incorporated, so it will be a little difficult to perform the sharps and, therefore, the chromatic scales. But it doesn’t mean that you can’t play a musical scale on this recorder, it just means that you need to develop a better technique.
The sound is curious. Depending on the occasion, it may sound somewhat dry, with little sustain. However, at other times it is rich in harmonics, with good sustain and reverb. This is because of what we mentioned earlier: temperature is the factor that changes the sound quality. From the German perspective, the dry, punchy sound is wonderful.
However, we (who enjoy Joaquí Rodrigo, Francisco Tárrega, Manuel de Falla and others) like sounds that respond with a richness of vibrations, with reverb that covers everything in its path. In other words, the temperature in Spain enhances the sound of the Gewa Natura Recorder andmatches our personality in a fascinating way.
The harmonics? are a delight, the fast notes are completely understood and the groupets will make you jump for joy. Without a doubt, it is an instrument that we love.
The Gewa recorder is the jewel in the crown for beginners and intermediates who want a touch of tradition at an affordable price. All styles suit it: you can play whatever you want and it will sound great. You just need to develop a good technique.
If you are a professional, this is one of the types of recorders that you will appreciate, because at times it will border on the quality of your high-end recorder. It is the best recorder in its price range. Interested? Check it out at the best price at Thomann.
Meinel 200-1 C-Soprano
It has the quality of the Gewa flutes, but with a better quality/price ratio.
- Materials: Maple wood.
- Tuning: C “C”.
- Sound: excellent, we love it.
- Weight: 198.4 gr.
The Meinel company has been designing high quality beginner instruments since 1914. This is a family-owned company that has understood in many ways the needs of students in their own academies and each of their instruments has been tested in their classrooms to pass the acid test in the hands of trainees and teachers.
It has the excellent features of the best entry-level recorder types but at a fraction of the price, so it is an excellent choice for musicians on a budget.
The Meinel 200-1 C-Soprano is made of German maple wood and therefore has the same characteristics as the Gewa Natura Recorder. Its fracture resistance is 450 kg per square centimeter, so it will last for several generations.
The modulus of elasticity is over 110 thousand kilograms per square centimeter. Its response to sound vibrations is equal to that of the Gewa soprano recorder: very good, stable, with the added bonus of durability.
The temperature difference between Spain and Germany has an equal influence on durability, which means more resistance in cold climates and less resistance in hot climates. However, its elasticity is better in Spain and that makes the sound richer.
This recorder looks like a replica of the Gewa proposal, as its resemblance is extreme. Traditional is the hallmark of this soprano recorder, with a wood finish, a natural color and the characteristic woody sound. It is made in the traditional way, in two parts but with the difference of having a curved perforation in the mouthpiece to improve the response of the air column.
This makes it easier for beginners to control, while the German fingering in no way diminishes the quality of this flute. It does not have double holes, so you will have to improve your technique if you want to make chromatic scales.
The diminished second notes will require more practice, time and dedication, but this is a good thing because you will be forced to become a better and better player.
As with the Gewa soprano recorder, in cold regions you will notice that the sound is dry, direct and linear. That is the sound the Germans are looking for, but we prefer sounds that remind us of the Concierto de Aranjuéz, the Capricho Árabe.
La Vida Breve is our thing because we love sounds that respond with rich vibes and good reverb. The climatic diversity of Spain contributes to give a sound closer to our identity . Within this climatic context, harmonics become a delight and a phenomenal echo can be obtained.
We can say beyond any doubt that we have a flute that is analogous to the proposed Gewa but for half the price. Its sound is rich and we recommend it for all students and intermediates who wish to invest little in their purchase but gain a lot.
We also recommend it for music teachers, as it is an excellent choice that is in the same range as the Yamaha YRS-23. Interested? Check it out at the best price at Thomann.
We are faced with an extremely difficult decision because we have four impressive recorders that are the best on the market, the best known and the best rated. But if we had to decide, we would go for the Meinel 200-1 C-Soprano .
It has the best of the Yamaha YRS-23 recorder and the Gewa Natura Recorder, but with better sound and for the same price in the case of the Yamaha and much better in the case of the Gewa.
The best alto recorders
Thomann TRA-21G Alto
It has double holes, an impressive design and superior sound.
- Materials: ABS plastic.
- Tuning: F “F
- Sound: High quality.
- Weight: 230 gr.
Thomann seeks to cover the wide market of musical instruments with a very varied catalog, especially wind instruments such as saxophones, transverse flutes, harmonicas and others. But they are also very good at meeting the needs of students in a comprehensive way and with this dulcimer they have succeeded once again.
This proposal has some excellent features that give the impression that this is a much more expensive flute than it is really worth.
This alto recorder is made entirely of ABS plastic. When you hold it in your hands you can feel the weight and density of its material, which is definitely denser than that of any Yamaha flute. We believe that it is made of ABS reinforced with metal to obtain a higher density and better acoustic qualities, although this is not made clear in the characteristics of the instrument.
The Thomann TRA-21G Alto has a German type fingering, so the flute positions are easier for beginners and intermediates, and a teacher can use it without any problems. One thing we like is that it is made in three pieces, which allows you to adjust the to make it more comfortable for the little finger fingering.
From this range onwards we already find recorder types with double holes, which gives it the characteristics of a mid-range instrument.
The sound is great news for recorder lovers, because it is rich in nuance and with harmonics that few, if any, other recorders in this price range have. Likewise, we found the sustain to be very good, it has body and the reverb gives a rough sound that we love.
In the sustained notes one can feel a certain roughness, while in the fast notes one can perceive agility in the movements and each of the sound transitions. Scales will not be a problem because the double holes allow you to achieve the sharps or, failing that, the flats. The double holes bring great versatility to the Thomann flute, so you can play baroque, classical and modern pieces without the common sonic limitations.
We can say that the Thomann TRA-21G Alto is very complete because it is built in three pieces that you can adjust to facilitate the fingering, while the richness of the sound brings great versatility and the quality of the ABS give it a greater resistance than most proposals on the market.
We recommend it for beginners and intermediate players who want to buy a recorder with remarkable features at a very affordable price. Interested? Find the best price at Thomann.
Adler Heinrich Alto
High quality and totally traditional manufacture.
It is expensive.
- Materials: Maple wood.
- Tuning: F.
- Sound: Excellent in every sense.
- Weight: 198 gr.
The Adler Heinrich company was one of the great firms in the manufacture of musical instruments considered medium-high range, since they used top quality materials combined with handmade tradition in their best proposals.
However, the company had to close its doors in 2006 due to financial difficulties and we will discuss both the design and price aspects of this alto recorder, as it is an example of quality combined with a poor cost concept.
The Adler Heinrich Alto is made entirely of German maple wood, which is synonymous with durability: it is a flute that you can pass on to your grandchildren. Depending on the climate zone, this German wood may have a better response to vibrations.
In Spain or areas with an average temperature between 19º and 25º, you will have a flute with excellent acoustics but less resistance. Now, you shouldn’t think it will break, it will just have a better sound. In any location, it is still a very resistant instrument.
This flute has been constructed in three pieces and with a German fingering design. The foot can be moved, so it is possible to adapt it to make it even easier to achieve the toe positions. It is handmade from maple wood. It has a curved perforation in the mouthpiece, which gives it a better response to make the air column more controllable and easier for beginners.
Something that leaves something to be desired due to its price is that it does not have double holes. This is due to the purpose for which it was designed: this flute is intended for beginners. As we have said before, you will have to improve your technique if you want to do chromatic scales or diminished second tones that require more dedication and practice.
But this is not necessarily a bad thing as you will feel obliged to be an excellent performer, with an increasingly refined technique.
The tones are clear and distinguishable, the sound powerful but stable and with beautiful harmonics. In addition, this flute has excellent reverb and the sustain is just the way we like it. The scales sound wonderful.
If you play them slowly, the sound will be enveloping and warm, but if you play them fast, the sound is aggressive, with punch. The musical pieces that best suit him are the classical and modern repertoire, with the exception of baroque, which does not suit him at all. But if you develop a great technique, baroque will not be a problem.
Although it does not have double holes, the sharps are not difficult to make and the same goes for the diminished notes. You will feel your skin crawl because they sound great. Overall, we give the sound a 10/10.
The Adler Heinrich Alto is very good and the sound is of the highest quality, but our problem with it is the price: nothing about it justifies such a high price. But if you want a traditional instrument with excellent workmanship and sound quality, this flute is for you.
We do not rule it out completely but we can say that other of our proposals have a quality of this level and with a sound almost as good, but for a much lower price. Have you got your teeth set on edge? Find the best price at Thomann.
The best alto baroque recorder
Alto recorders of the baroque type arethe most sought after by teachers and a good number of them request instruments with this type of fingering. For teachers and professionals we have selected what we consider to be the best value for money baroque recorder on the market. Let’s see what it has to offer.
Aulos 509B “Symphony
Impressive design and double holes.
- Materials: ABS plastic, ivory.
- Tuning: F “F”.
- Sound: Excellent.
- Weight: 272 gr.
Aulos is a brand of the Toyama Musical Instrument company, founded by Nobuo Toyama in 1950. This firm has a certain preference for student instruments with baroque tuning, as they consider them to be of higher quality and to add a certain prestige to their designs.
The quality of its sound is not easy to find and this is due to the selection and care that the company has taken in each of the manufacturing stages.
As is Toyama’s specialization, this flute is made of ABS resin plastic, which is currently the most widely used material for making wind instruments, especially flutes. The Aulos 509B “Symphony” is a large recorder: it weighs 272 grams, quite a lot for a recorder.
It is also 2 mm thick, indicating a flute that is sturdier and stronger than any other. In addition, the company has incorporated ivory in the beak and headjoint, something that is reserved for high-end flutes. However, Toyama has decided to offer a luxury detail that also enhances the sound on this student instrument.
The Toyama Symphony family of flutes consists of six types of flutes of different tunings. But, according to the designers themselves, this alto recorder has the best response and most closely emulates all the characteristics of the original baroque flutes in terms of design and sound quality.
This sound quality is due to the response of the 2 mm thick ABS, something that cannot be done with other types of recorder such as the soprano, as it is small, would weigh a lot and the sound would be dull. The tenor recorder should be thicker to provide this response, let alone the bass recorder, which should be at least 5 mm thick to compare.
In other words, the superior design of this flute is nothing more than fortuitous. The other five in the series cannot have the same characteristics as they would be either too heavy or too opaque in sound. The fingering is evidently baroque because the intention was to create a flute that emulates the old ones.
In addition, double holes have been incorporated so that the student can have greater access to the sustained tones and their respective scales. The Aulos 509B “Symphony” consists of three parts, so that the student can adjust the headjoint to make the note positions on the flute easier to achieve.
As we have said before, this proposal achieves a truly baroque sound: its tone is fine and has a certain aesthetics that no other flute for beginners possesses. The thickness of the ABS plastic is responsible for its warmth, as it provides excellent stability at all sound frequencies.
In addition, the small pieces of ivory on the beak and head make an impressive difference. The sustain and reverb are beautiful, they give an impressive sense of antiquity and the sound color is enveloping, creamy, which is expressed especially in baroque music. The sound response to third and fifth intervals is really good: each note is differentiated and responds to the column of air emitted by the musician.
This flute is unlike any other because its material configuration and design features only work on it, resulting in a gift that every student, intermediate and advanced musician should appreciate and take advantage of. Its sound is clear, powerful, with a wonderful response to the different air columns and has a flavor that takes us back to the 15th century. Do you like it? Find the best price at Thomann.
The best tenor flute
Tenor recorders are the most widely used today due to their versatility and adaptable sound for almost any type of performance. This type of flute must have certain characteristics that bring versatility to the sound and to achieve this, materials and design must come together to create a great instrument.
Traditionally manufactured in pear wood.
It is expensive.
- Materials: Pear wood.
- Tuning: C “C”.
- Sound: Excellent.
- Weight: 540 gr.
The 19th century saw the birth of a history full of musical richness with the rise of the Mollenhauer house that would leave a trail of illustrious craftsmen. This particular tenor recorder is an instrument that delights for its many features: quality, a warm, sensitive and emotional sound, among others. Find out all about it below.
This tenor recorder is made of German pear wood, which has a breaking strength of 700 kg per cubic centimeter. That is, it is very resistant, more so than most woods used in wind instruments.
The Mollenhauer craftsmen have opted for the traditional by using pear wood with natural tone, reminiscent of the old flutes used by German masters since the 16th century. The fingering is the German characteristic, which has a good acceptance within circles of great musicians.
It has double holes, which will facilitate the execution of the sharps and flats, as well as the respective scales of the flute. Inside it has a curved mouthpiece to facilitate the displacement of the air column and to have a better control of the sound.
The sound of the Mollenhauer 2466 is the result of all of the above: it is impressively powerful, but at the same time warm and with a sensitivity that is difficult to find in tenor recorders.
Pear wood gives a balanced response to the low frequencies and the transition from these to the high frequencies is excellent, thus delegating the responsibility to the technical mastery of the interpreting musician.
The versatility in the sound of this flute is evident not only in the transitions between sound frequencies, but also in the quality of the sustain, which provides a high quality sound cushion. The reverb incorporates a noticeable balance for excellent resonance.
Mollenhauer has put all its experience and expertise into this recorder, so that its users have in their hands an instrument of the highest quality. Its sound is versatile, balanced and with a sonority that can be identified with us in culturasonora. This is why we recommend it for all levels of learning, as it is an instrument that both beginners and professionals should have. Find the best price at Thomann.
Remember that on culturasonora ‘s homepage you can find the best reviews and comparisons of sound equipment and headphones, as well as all kinds of wind, string and percussion musical instruments, such as an accordion, didgeridoo, bassoon, trumpet, guitar, bass, etc.
Technical characteristics Recorder
|Moeck 1020 Flauto 1 Plus||Wood and ABS plastic||do “C”||200 gr||Brilliant, with little sustain but balanced|
|Yamaha YRS-23||ABS plastic||do “C”||113 gr||Excellent for the price, with good sustain|
|Gewa Natura Recorder||Maple wood||do “C”||198,4 gr||Good, balanced|
|Meinel 200-1 C-Soprano||Maple wood||do “C”||198,4 gr||Excellent, we love it|
|Thomann TRA-21G Alto||ABS plastic||fa "F"||230 gr||High quality, 9 out of 10|
|Adler Heinrich Alto||Maple wood||fa "F"||198 gr||Excellent in every way 10 out of 10|
|Aulos 509B “Symphony”||ABS plastic, ivory||fa "F"||272 gr||Excellent, 10 out of 10|
|Mollenhauer 2466||Pear wood||do “C”||540 gr||Excelent|